Root Canal Procedures are necessary when the the soft tissue inside the root canal, becomes inflamed or infected. The inflammation or infection can have a variety of causes and symptoms.
Every tooth consists of three different layers. From the outside, first there is Enamel (the outer layer of the teeth which is the hardest part of the body). The second layer is Dentin (the inside hard layer) and then we have the Pulp (which is an empty space where the live tissue and nerve of each tooth is located).
If for any reason the pulp space is exposed to the outside, the tissue becomes contaminated and eventually infected. The exposure of pulp happens in many circumstances for example when you have a large cavity, or a fractured tooth. Your dentist can explain the exact reason for damage to this tissue. Regardless of the reason for this contamination or damage to pulp tissue, the treatment is usually Root canal treatment.